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Dyslexia-What Are Its Types?
A lot of people are confused with the meaning of dyslexia.
What is dyslexia?
There are actually two different meanings of dyslexia.
The first meaning of dyslexia is the literal meaning since it is based on the etymology of the word itself, “Dys” means problematic or wrong then “lexia” means pertaining to letters or words. The literal meaning of dyslexia is problems with words. People that are having difficulty in reading has dyslexia.
The second meaning is more wider when it comes to its use and its application. This is mostly used by dyslexic adults and by parents of dyslexics. In the application aspect, dyslexia refers to different symptoms like problems with spelling, writing and reading, poor memory, does not have physical coordination and has difficulty in hearing.
The exact meaning of dyslexia actually depends on how the word is being used.
In the year 1973, Newcombe and Marshall subdivided the word dyslexia and they describe each kind dyslexia. They started with the ideas of surface dyslexia, double deficit dyslexia and phonological dyslexia.
Below are the different kinds of dyslexia:
A. Surface dyslexia
One of the symptoms of surface dyslexia is when the person is having mistakes and is inconsistent with the English pronunciation. Here is an example, the word bowl is pronounced as howl and the word pretty is pronounced as jetty.
B. Phonological dyslexia
Phonological dyslexia refers to the failure of adapting the phonics of the English language. Those individuals that have phonological dyslexia are those that have difficulty in reading new words.
C. Double deficit dyslexia
There are people that have both kinds of dyslexia such as phonological dyslexia and surface dyslexia and the term that they use for this condition is double deficit dyslexia.
The visual dyslexia and auditory dyslexia are from the magnocellular theory. In this theory, people with dyslexia are neurologically weak in their magnocellular cells in the thalamus part of brain. The thalamus is where the auditory and visual information are processed.
There are studies that proves that people with dyslexia have difficulties in processing auditory information and visual information.
This means that children that have poor visual skills but have average hearing skills can be diagnosed as visual dyslexia, and those children that have poor hearing skills but average visual skills are diagnosed with auditory dyslexia.
E. Orthographic dyslexia
Orthography is a group of letters and symbols that creates a language. The english alphabet has 26 letters, while for the Chinese and Japanese language they have thousands of different kinds of symbols. This means that orthographic dyslexia is problems with the identification and manipulation of letters in spelling, writing and reading.